- In India, this
disease was reported in 2003.
- The disease
has been observed in serious proportion in different parts of
Kerala during the past few years and even up to 100% incidence
was reported in certain black pepper plantations.
- Though the
disease has been noticed on all the cultivars, its incidence
and severity is more in Karimunda and Panniyur 1.
- The disease is
characterised by vein clearing, scattered chlorotic flecks,
followed by chlorotic mottling along veins leading to
interveinal chlorosis and characteristic curling, twisting and
deformation of leaves (Image1).
- In a few
cultivars, vein banding, vein thickening and green island-like
symptoms are also seen (Image2).
produced leaves are small, curled, twisted and brittle with
bright interveinal chlorotic patches (Image3).
interveinal chlorosis or yellow flecking of leaves results in
poor spike and berry formation.
- Internodes of
vines become abnormally short leading to stunting of plants.
- The infected
vines have reduced vigour and yield.
- They continue
to decline and remain unproductive for a long period without
- It is
transmitted through sap, cuttings, graftings, cutting knives
and implements; and also through insect vectors like mealy
bugs in a non-persistent manner. Various species of mealy bugs
associated are Planococcus citri (citrus mealy bug),
Psedococcus elisae and Ferrisia virgata (Foliar mealy bug).
The virus is also transmitted by Diconocoris distanti (black
pepper lace bug) (Image4,5).
- Raise cuttings
from disease free vines and also avoid normal vines from
- As viral
diseases of Black pepper are systemic in nature, the viruses
are present in every cell of the plant and after entering into
the vines, the viruses may even take 2 to 5 years to express
the symptoms depending upon the varieties, age of vines,
nature of virus(es), climatic conditions prevailing, vectors
- As the crop is
vegetatively propagated, disease spread is rapid through the
planting material, especially when infected plants are used as
the source of planting material.
- Separate and
destroy diseased planting materials in nurseries. This helps
to reduce the source of virus and its spread.
- Uproot and
burn the roots and infected vines in the field. This helps to
reduce the disease spread through insect vectors as such vines
serve as source of inoculum.
- Avoid movement
of planting materials from the infected regions to disease
cutting knives and blades used for taking cuttings and other
farm implements used in the affected field with phenol
- Do not prune
off the infected plant parts alone, as it never eradicates the
virus. Rather it exposes tools to infected sap.
- Remove and
destroy all the collateral hosts of virus and insect vectors
from the pepper fields.
- In order to
avoid the spread of the disease through insect vectors,
control vectors by spraying systemic insecticides like
Monocrotophos (Nuvacron 1.5ml/L) or Dimethoate (Roger 1.5ml/L)
at 3-4 weeks interval. If more number of sprays are required,
adopt rotation of insecticides, rather than repeatedly
sparying the same insecticide. Also, give waiting period