Disease:Stunted disease Complex

Virus diseases of pepper,though, seen throughout Kerala very often are neglected due to unawareness of the disease by farmers.The incidence of disease may vary from 0.06 to 46.0 % of vines in various gardens. The virus disease complex is highest in Wayanad (45.4%) followed by Idukki (29.4%).

  • disease 25
  • disease 26
  • disease 27
  • disease 28


  • The affected vines exhibit shortening of internodes to varying degrees. The leaves become small and narrow with varying degrees of deformation and appear leathery, puckered and crinkled.
  • Chlorotic spots, yellow flecking, dark green vein banding also appear on the leaves occasionally.
  • Internodes of vines become abnormally short leading to varying degrees of stunting of plants.. In very severe cases the vine sheds leaves and berries leaving a leafless vine.Vines seldom die due to this disease complex, but continue to decline and spike and berry formation ceases gradually.


Major mode of spread of the viruses is through the use of infected stem cuttings. The viruses may even take 2-5 years to express the typical symptoms depending on varieties, age of vine, nature of virus strains, climatic conditions, ,vector associated ,etc. The disease can also be transmitted through insects like aphids,(Aphis gossypii) citrus mealy bugs (Planococcus citri,Pseudococcus elisae,Ferrisia virgata) and pepper lacewing bug (Diconocoris distanti).

Procedure for Observation

Select 20 standards at random and look for typical symptoms. Work out the % of incidence. Get it confirmed from laboratories having virus indexing facilities.


  • Mere presence.

    Control Measures

  • Raise cuttings from disease free vines and also avoid normal vines from infected gardens.
  • Disinfect cutting knifes and blades used for taking cuttings and other farm implements used in the affected fields with phenol.
  • Never prune off only the infected parts- the disease affected plant should be completely removed.
  • Regular monitoring and removal of infected vines and burning Control insect vectors by spraying dimethoate at 0.05% (Roger 35 EC).