Disease : Stem Bleeding

Though the disease is found in all soil types of Kerala, it is severe in laterite soils and sandy soils of the coastal area.

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  • The visible symptom is the presence of characteristic dark brown patches at the basal portion of the trunk.
  • These lesions spread to other parts of the stem.
  • Dark reddish brown liquid exudes from the longitudinal growth cracks present on the stem bark.
  • They coalesce to form irregular streaks.
  • The tissues below the infected portion show decay.
  • In advanced stages the tissues become black and fibrous.
  • The infection is observed during June to July and its progress is faster during July to November.
  • The symptom on the crown is manifested as premature yellowing of leaves of the outer whorl,followed by drooping and drying.
  • The trunk gradually tapers towards the apex.

Procedure for Observation

Randomly select 20 trees from the garden.Record the number of trees showing symptoms.


Mere presence


The fungus is a wound pathogen.Growth crevices on the trunk formed due to prolonged dry spell followed by sudden and heavy rains, water stagnation, or imbalance in nutrition, excess salinity and stress can act as predisposing or aggravating factors .The maximum symptom of bleeding is observed during July in laterite loam soil.The intensity of the disease is low during summer months.

Control Measures

  • Remove the affected tissues by chiseling and painting the wound with tridemorph 5% and apply coal tar after 1-2 days.
  • Avoid any mechanical injury to the trunk.
  • Apply neem cake @ 5kg/palm in the basin along with other organics.
  • Apply Trichoderma @50 g per palm along with FYM Root feeding with tridemorph 5%, thrice a year during April-May, September-October and January-February can be done to prevent further spread of lesions.
  • Soil drenching with tridemorph @ 25ml in 25litres of water once in four months.