Disease:Fungal Pollu/Anthracnose

Fungal pollu, also referred to as "Berry spot" and "Berry split" is more severe in north Malabar and Idukki.

  • disease 17
  • disease 18
  • disease 19
  • disease 20
  • disease 21


  • Chlorotic angular leaf spots surrounded by yellowish halo is the most common symptom of pollu.In high ranges circular spots are noticed and occasionally the necrotic portion drops off leaving holes.
  • When conditions are favourable leaf spots may join together resulting in leaf blight followed by defoliation.
  • The fungus causes necrosis on the stalk of the spike resulting in spike shedding. Infected spikes turn black, shrivel and shed. The infection starts from the tip of the spike and gradually progresses upwards.
  • Berries at the proximal end of the spike develop to maturity except that they exhibit minute black spot. Berries close to the diseased portion are smaller in size. It also causes a mild crack on some berries and further development is affected.
  • The affected berries dry up gradually and remain as light berries (fungal pollu).In severely infected plantations, defoliation, spike shedding and berry shedding are common.


The infection is noticed during June at the time of spike emergence. Anthracnose disease is mainly spread by the rain splash. Maximum damage is noticed during August-September and the loss ranges from 28-34%.

Procedure for Observation

Observe 20 standards from the plot at random and assess the % of spikes showing symptoms by selecting 10 spikes at random from each standard. Workout the average damage. Less than 2 % mild; 2-4 % moderate and more than 4 % severe.


  • 2 % damage.
  • Control Measures

  • Irrigating black pepper vines during summer months has been found to substantially reduce the disease symptoms.
  • Adequate shade regulation is a must for managing this disease.Remove and destroy all fallen leaves and spikes
  • Spray 1 %Bordeaux mixture or 0.2 % copper oxy chloride (50WP Blitox, Blue copper, Killex copper,etc) or 0.1% carbendazim 50 % WP (Bavistin, Zoom,JK Stein, Benfil,etc) or a formulation containing carbendazim + mancozeb (Carbendazim 12WP+ Mancozeb 63 WP eg Saaf, Companion, etc)) before emergence of flowers (late June- early July) and then at berry formation stage (late August).